Puerto Rico Fact Page of the Tuna Point Lighthouse, Faro De Punta Tuna, Maunabo, Puerto Rico
TUNA POINT LIGHTHOUSE
Working to attain and reconstruct the Tuna Point Light House
"Faro De Punta Tuna" & protect the US coastline
Flag Description:

five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large, white, five-pointed star in the center; design initially influenced by the US flag, but similar to the Cuban flag, with the colors of the bands and triangle reversed.

This site is dedicated to the lighthouse restoration and lighthouse preservation of the Punta Tuna lighthouse.  This USCG Lighthouse is considered part of the National Park Service, as it is one of the Puerto Rico National Historic Lighthouses.  It is known but many names including, Tuna Point lighthouse, Point Tuna lighthouse, Faro de Punta Tuna, and Maunabo lighthouse.  The Point Tuna Lighthouse is located in Maunabo, Puerto Rico and this site contains, lighthouse pictures, lighthouse photos, lighthouse blueprints, lighthouse facts, lighthouse images from space, weather at the lighthouse, Maunabo weather and weather for all of Puerto Rico.  There is also detailed information, on the Maunabo Wetland area, and plans for the coastal security of the United States.
Copyright © 2006, 2007, 2008 Tuna Point Lighthouse, Inc.  All rights reserved.
Background:  

Populated for centuries by aboriginal peoples, ( Tainos ) the island was claimed by the Spanish Crown in 1493 following COLUMBUS' second voyage to the Americas. In 1898, after 400 years of colonial rule that saw the indigenous population nearly exterminated and African slave labor introduced, Puerto Rico was ceded to the US as a result of the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917. Popularly-elected governors have served since 1948. In 1952, a constitution was enacted providing for internal self government. In plebiscites held in 1967, 1993, and 1998, voters chose not to alter the existing political status. 
Geography    

Location:  
Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of the Dominican Republic 

Geographic coordinates:  
18 15 N, 66 30 W 

Area:   
total: 13,790 sq km
land: 8,870 sq km
water: 4,921 sq km 

Area - comparative:  
slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island 

Coastline:  
501 km 

Maritime claims: 
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm 

Climate:  
tropical marine, mild; little seasonal temperature variation 

Terrain:  
mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north; mountains precipitous to sea on west coast; sandy beaches along most coastal areas 

Elevation extremes:  
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro de Punta 1,339 m 

Natural resources:  
some copper and nickel; potential for onshore and offshore oil 

Land use:  
arable land: 3.69%
permanent crops: 5.59%
other: 90.72% (2005) 

Irrigated land:  
400 sq km (2003) 

Natural hazards:  
periodic droughts; hurricanes 

Environment - current issues:  
erosion; occasional drought causing water shortages 

Geography - note:  
important location along the Mona Passage - a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean; many small rivers and high central mountains ensure land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain belt in north 
 
People    

Population:   
3,927,188 (July 2006 est.) 

Age structure:  
0-14 years: 21.3% (male 428,610/female 409,484)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 1,239,255/female 1,345,519)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 218,045/female 286,275) (2006 est.) 

Median age:  
total: 34.7 years
male: 33 years
female: 36.4 years (2006 est.) 

Population growth rate:  
0.4% (2006 est.) 

Birth rate:   
12.77 births/1,000 population (2006 est.) 

Death rate:   
7.65 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.) 

Net migration rate: 
-1.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.) 

Sex ratio:  
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2006 est.) 

Infant mortality rate:  
total: 9.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.) 

Life expectancy at birth:   
total population: 78.4 years
male: 74.46 years
female: 82.54 years (2006 est.) 

Total fertility rate:   
1.75 children born/woman (2006 est.) 

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:   
7,397 (1997) 

Nationality:  
noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)
adjective: Puerto Rican 

Ethnic groups: 
white (mostly Spanish origin) 80.5%, black 8%, Amerindian 0.4%, Asian 0.2%, mixed and other 10.9% 

Religions:  
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant and other 15% 

Languages:  
Spanish, English 

Literacy:  
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.1%
male: 93.9%
female: 94.4% (2002 est.) 

Government    

Country name:  
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
conventional short form: Puerto Rico 

Dependency status: 
unincorporated, organized territory of the US with commonwealth status; policy relations between Puerto Rico and the US conducted under the jurisdiction of the Office of the President 

Government type:  
commonwealth 

Capital:  
San Juan 

Administrative divisions:  
none (territory of the US with commonwealth status); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 78 municipalities (municipios, singular - municipio) at the second order; Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Anasco, Arecibo, Arroyo, Barceloneta, Barranquitas, Bayamon, Cabo Rojo, Caguas, Camuy, Canovanas, Carolina, Catano, Cayey, Ceiba, Ciales, Cidra, Coamo, Comerio, Corozal, Culebra, Dorado, Fajardo, Florida, Guanica, Guayama, Guayanilla, Guaynabo, Gurabo, Hatillo, Hormigueros, Humacao, Isabela, Jayuya, Juana Diaz, Juncos, Lajas, Lares, Las Marias, Las Piedras, Loiza, Luquillo, Manati, Maricao, Maunabo, Mayaguez, Moca, Morovis, Naguabo, Naranjito, Orocovis, Patillas, Penuelas, Ponce, Quebradillas, Rincon, Rio Grande, Sabana Grande, Salinas, San German, San Juan, San Lorenzo, San Sebastian, Santa Isabel, Toa Alta, Toa Baja, Trujillo Alto, Utuado, Vega Alta, Vega Baja, Vieques, Villalba, Yabucoa, Yauco 

Independence:  
none (territory of the US with commonwealth status) 

National holiday:  
US Independence Day, 4 July (1776); Puerto Rico Constitution Day, 25 July (1952) 

Constitution: 
ratified 3 March 1952, approved by US Congress 3 July 1952, effective 25 July 1952 

Legal system: 
based on Spanish civil code and within the US Federal system of justice 

Suffrage:  
18 years of age; universal; island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections 

Executive branch:  
chief of state: President George W. BUSH of the US (since 20 January 2001); Vice President Richard B. CHENEY (since 20 January 2001)
head of government: Governor Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA (since 2 January 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor with the consent of the legislature
elections: under the US Consitution, residents of unincorporated territories, such as Puerto Rico, do not vote in elections for US president and vice president; governor elected by popular vote for a four-year term (no term limits); election last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held November 2008)
election results: Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA (PPD) elected governor; percent of vote - 48.4% 

Legislative branch:  
bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of the Senate (at least 27 seats - currently 29; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives (51 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held November 2008); House of Representatives - last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held November 2008)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PNP 43.4%, PPD 40.3%, PIP 9.4%; seats by party - PNP 17, PPD 9, PIP 1; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PNP 46.3%, PPD 43.1%, PIP 9.7%; seats by party - PNP 32, PPD 18, PIP 1

note: Puerto Rico elects, by popular vote, a resident commissioner to serve a four-year term as a nonvoting representative in the US House of Representatives; aside from not voting on the House floor, he enjoys all the rights of a member of Congress; elections last held 2 November 2004 (next to be held November 2008); Luis FORTUNO elected resident commissioner; results - percent of vote by party - PNP 48.6%; seats by party - PNP 1 

Judicial branch:  
Supreme Court; Appellate Court; Court of First Instance composed of two sections: a Superior Court and a Municipal Court (justices for all these courts appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate) 

Political parties and leaders: 
National Democratic Party [Celeste BENITEZ]; National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Dr. Tiody FERRE]; New Progressive Party or PNP (pro-US statehood) [Pedro ROSSELLO]; Popular Democratic Party or PPD (pro-commonwealth) [Anibal ACEVEDO-VILA]; Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP (pro-independence) [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez] 

Political pressure groups and leaders:  
Boricua Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los Macheteros); note - the following radical groups are considered dormant by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces for National Liberation or FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto Rican Revolution 

International organization participation: 
Interpol (subbureau), IOC, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WToO (associate) 

Diplomatic representation in the US: 
none (territory of the US with commonwealth status) 

Diplomatic representation from the US:  
none (territory of the US with commonwealth status) 

Flag description:  
five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large, white, five-pointed star in the center; design initially influenced by the US flag, but similar to the Cuban flag, with the colors of the bands and triangle reversed 

Economy    

Economy - overview:  

Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the Caribbean region. A diverse industrial sector has far surpassed agriculture as the primary locus of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. US minimum wage laws apply. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income, with estimated arrivals of nearly 5 million tourists in 2004. Growth fell off in 2001-03, largely due to the slowdown in the US economy, and has recovered in 2004-2005. 

GDP (purchasing power parity):   
$72.7 billion (2005 est.) 

GDP - real growth rate:  
2.5% (2005 est.) 

GDP - per capita (PPP):   
$18,600 (2005 est.) 

GDP - composition by sector:  
agriculture: 1%
industry: 45%
services: 54% (2002 est.) 

Labor force:   
1.3 million (2000) 

Labor force - by occupation: 
agriculture: 3%
industry: 20%
services: 77% (2000 est.) 

Unemployment rate:  
12% (2002) 

Population below poverty line:  
NA% 
Household income or consumption by percentage share:  

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% 

Inflation rate (consumer prices):  
6.5% (2003 est.) 

Budget:  
revenues: $6.7 billion
expenditures: $9.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00) 
Agriculture - products:  
sugarcane, coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock products, chickens 
Industries:  
pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, food products, tourism 
 
Electricity - production:  
23.03 billion kWh (2003) 

Electricity - consumption:  
21.42 billion kWh (2003) 

Oil - production:   
436.1 bbl/day (2003 est.) 

Oil - consumption:  
218,000 bbl/day (2003 est.) 

Natural gas - consumption:  
740 million cu m (2003 est.) 

Natural gas - imports:  
630 million cu m (2001 est.) 

Exports:   
$46.9 billion f.o.b. (2001) 

Exports - commodities:  
chemicals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna, rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment 

Exports - partners:  
US 90.3%, UK 1.6%, Netherlands 1.4%, Dominican Republic 1.4% (2004) 

Imports:  
$29.1 billion c.i.f. (2001) 

Imports - commodities:  
chemicals, machinery and equipment, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products 

Imports - partners:  
US 55.0%, Ireland 23.7%, Japan 5.4% (2004) 
 
Currency (code): 
US dollar (USD) 

Exchange rates:  
the US dollar is used 

Fiscal year: 
1 July - 30 June 

Communications  

Telephones - main lines in use:  
1,111,900 (2004) 

Telephones - mobile cellular:   
2.682 million (2004) 

Telephone system:  
general assessment: modern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability
domestic: digital telephone system; cellular telephone service
international: country code - 1-787, 939; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; submarine cable to US 

Radio broadcast stations:  
AM 74, FM 53, shortwave 0 (2006) 

Television broadcast stations:  
32 (2006) 

Internet country code: 
.pr 

Internet hosts:   
132 (2005) 

Internet users:  
1 million (2005) 

Transportation  

Airports:   
30 (2005) 

Airports - with paved runways: 
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 5 (2005) 

Airports - with unpaved runways:  
total: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 10 (2005) 

Railways:  
total: 96 km
narrow gauge: 96 km 1.000-m gauge (2005) 

Roadways:   
total: 25,645 km
paved: 24,363 km (including 426 km of expressways)
unpaved: 1,282 km (2004) 

Merchant marine:  
total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 45,662 GRT/32,223 DWT
by type: roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 2 (US 2)
registered in other countries: 1 (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2005) 

Ports and terminals:  
Las Mareas, Mayaguez, San Juan 
 
Military   Puerto Rico Top of Page 

Military branches:  
no regular indigenous military forces; paramilitary National Guard, Police Force 

Military - note:  
defense is the responsibility of the US 

Transnational Issues     

Disputes - international:  
increasing numbers of illegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage to Puerto Rico each year looking for work 

Puerto Rico:  

A self-governing island commonwealth of the United States in the Caribbean Sea east of Hispaniola. Inhabited by Tainos when it was discovered by Columbus in 1493, it was colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century and ceded to the United States in 1898 after the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. citizenship in 1917, although residents of the island do not vote in U.S. presidential elections. Commonwealth status was proclaimed in 1952 and has been upheld by various plebiscites since the 1960s.  San Juan is the capital and the largest city.
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